Some schools or districts require teachers to list the standard they are teaching in their lesson plans. This page is meant to assist in that regard as well as inspire ideas for lesson plans themselves.
EDUCATION STANDARDS FOR EVERY STATE
Unfortunately, we are not listing the websites for each state, however, you may find them by searching for the words “education standards” and the state’s name. Each state seems to lay them out in a different manner.
The following is taken from the California History-Social Science Standards last adopted in 1998:
These selections are meant to focus on the relevance on teaching about rock art in today’s social studies curriculum; the bold is inserted here. Other standards may also be applicable, in varying degrees.
In kindergarten through grade three, students are introduced to the basic concepts of each discipline: history, geography, civics, and economics. Beginning at grade four, the disciplines are woven together within the standards at each grade.
The critical thinking skills that support the study of history-social science are outlined in the sections for grades five, eight, and ten. To approach subject matter as historians, geographers, economists, and political scientists, students are expected to employ these skills as they master the content. As the content becomes more and more standards driven, it will be more difficult to work in a true lesson on rock art, let alone a passing mention. Therefore, in the upper grades, what I have included is more of a stretch. Visit the California History-Social Science Curriculum Frameworks website for more information.
GRADE ONE: A Child's Place in Time and Space
Students in grade one continue a more detailed treatment of the broad concepts of rights and responsibilities in the contemporary world. The classroom serves as a microcosm of society in which decisions are made with respect for individual responsibility, for other people, and for the rules by which we all must live: fair play, good sportsmanship, and respect for the rights and opinions of others. Students examine the geographic and economic aspects of life in their own neighborhoods and compare them to those of people long ago. Students explore the varied backgrounds of American citizens and learn about the symbols, icons, and songs that reflect our common heritage.
1.2 Students compare and contrast the absolute and relative locations of places and people and describe the physical and/ or human characteristics of places.
- Locate on maps and globes their local community, California, the United States, the seven continents, and the four oceans.
- Compare the information that can be derived from a three-dimensional model to the information that can be derived from a picture of the same location.
- Construct a simple map, using cardinal directions and map symbols.
- Describe how location, weather, and physical environment affect the way people live, including the effects on their food, clothing, shelter, transportation, and recreation.
1.5 Students describe the human characteristics of familiar places and the varied backgrounds of American citizens and residents in those places.
- Recognize the ways in which they are all part of the same community, sharing principles, goals, and traditions despite their varied ancestry; the forms of diversity in their school and community; and the benefits and challenges of a diverse population.
- Understand the ways in which American Indians and immigrants have helped define Californian and American culture.
- Compare the beliefs, customs, ceremonies, traditions, and social practices of the varied cultures, drawing from folklore.
Students in grade two explore the lives of actual people who make a difference in their everyday lives and learn the stories of extraordinary people from history whose achievements have touched them, directly or indirectly. The study of contemporary people who supply goods and services aids in understanding the complex interdependence in our free-market system.
2.1 Students differentiate between things that happened long ago and things that happened yesterday.
- Trace the history of a family through the use of primary and secondary sources, including artifacts, photographs, interviews, and documents.
- Compare and contrast their daily lives with those of their parents, grandparents, and/ or guardians.
- Place important events in their lives in the order in which they occurred (e.g., on a time line or storyboard).
Excellent for studying graffiti or vandalism at rock art sites.
GRADE THREE: Continuity and Change
Students in grade three learn more about our connections to the past and the ways in which particularly local, but also regional and national, government and traditions have developed and left their marks on current society, providing common memories. Emphasis is on the physical and cultural landscape of California, including the study of American Indians, the subsequent arrival of immigrants, and the impact they have had in forming the character of our contemporary society.
3.1 Students describe the physical and human geography and use maps, tables, graphs, photographs, and charts to organize information about people, places, and environments in a spatial context.
- Identify geographical features in their local region (e.g., deserts, mountains, valleys, hills, coastal areas, oceans, lakes).
- Trace the ways in which people have used the resources of the local region and modified the physical environment (e.g., a dam constructed upstream changed a river or coastline).
3.2 Students describe the American Indian nations in their local region long ago and in the recent past.
- Describe national identities, religious beliefs, customs, and various folklore traditions.
- Discuss the ways in which physical geography, including climate, influenced how the local Indian nations adapted to their natural environment (e.g., how they obtained food, clothing, tools).
- Describe the economy and systems of government, particularly those with tribal constitutions, and their relationship to federal and state governments.
- Discuss the interaction of new settlers with the already established Indians of the region.
3.5 Students demonstrate basic economic reasoning skills and an understanding of the economy of the local region.
- Describe the ways in which local producers have used and are using natural resources, human resources, and capital resources to produce goods and services in the past and the present.
- Understand that some goods are made locally, some elsewhere in the United States, and some abroad.
- Understand that individual economic choices involve trade-offs and the evaluation of benefits and costs.
- Discuss the relationship of students' "work" in school and their personal human capital.
Students learn the story of their home state, unique in American history in terms of its vast and varied geography, its many waves of immigration beginning with pre-Columbian societies, its continuous diversity, economic energy, and rapid growth. In addition to the specific treatment of milestones in California history, students examine the state in the context of the rest of the nation, with an emphasis on the U.S. Constitution and the relationship between state and federal government.
4.1 Students demonstrate an understanding of the physical and human geographic features that define places and regions in California.
- Explain and use the coordinate grid system of latitude and longitude to determine the absolute locations of places in California and on Earth.
- Use maps, charts, and pictures to describe how communities in California vary in land use, vegetation, wildlife, climate, population density, architecture, services, and transportation.
4.2 Students describe the social, political, cultural, and economic life and interactions among people of California from the pre-Columbian societies to the Spanish mission and Mexican rancho periods.
- Discuss the major nations of California Indians, including their geographic distribution, economic activities, legends, and religious beliefs; and describe how they depended on, adapted to, and modified the physical environment by cultivation of land and use of sea resources.
- Discuss the role of the Franciscans in changing the economy of California from a hunter-gatherer economy to an agricultural economy.
4.5 Students understand the structures, functions, and powers of the local, state, and federal governments as described in the U.S. Constitution.
- Describe the components of California's governance structure (e.g., cities and towns, Indian rancherias and reservations, counties, school districts).
Students in grade five study the development of the nation up to 1850, with an emphasis on the people who were already here, when and from where others arrived, and why they came. Students learn about the colonial government founded on Judeo-Christian principles, the ideals of the Enlightenment, and the English traditions of self-government. They recognize that ours is a nation that has a constitution that derives its power from the people, that has gone through a revolution, that once sanctioned slavery, that experienced conflict over land with the original inhabitants, and that experienced a westward movement that took its people across the continent. Studying the cause, course, and consequences of the early explorations through the War for Independence and western expansion is central to students' fundamental understanding of how the principles of the American republic form the basis of a pluralistic society in which individual rights are secured.
5.1 Students describe the major pre-Columbian settlements, including the cliff dwellers and pueblo people of the desert Southwest, the American Indians of the Pacific Northwest, the nomadic nations of the Great Plains, and the woodland peoples east of the Mississippi River.
- Describe how geography and climate influenced the way various nations lived and adjusted to the natural environment, including locations of villages, the distinct structures that they built, and how they obtained food, clothing, tools, and utensils.
- Describe their varied customs and folklore traditions.
- Explain their varied economies and systems of government.
5.3 Students describe the cooperation and conflict that existed among the American Indians and between the Indian nations and the new settlers.
Many rock art panels reflect these events and can be used to illustrate this standard and Standard 5.8.
5.8 Students trace the colonization, immigration, and settlement patterns of the American people from 1789 to the mid-1800s, with emphasis on the role of economic incentives, effects of the physical and political geography, and transportation systems.
- Discuss the waves of immigrants from Europe between 1789 and 1850 and their modes of transportation into the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys and through the Cumberland Gap (e.g., overland wagons, canals, flatboats, steamboats).
- Name the states and territories that existed in 1850 and identify their locations and major geographical features (e.g., mountain ranges, principal rivers, dominant plant regions).
- Demonstrate knowledge of the explorations of the trans-Mississippi West following the Louisiana Purchase (e.g., Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, Zebulon Pike, John Fremont).
- Discuss the experiences of settlers on the overland trails to the West (e.g., location of the routes; purpose of the journeys; the influence of the terrain, rivers, vegetation, and climate; life in the territories at the end of these trails).
Students in grade six expand their understanding of history by studying the people and events that ushered in the dawn of the major Western and non-Western ancient civilizations. Geography is of special significance in the development of the human story. Continued emphasis is placed on the everyday lives, problems, and accomplishments of people, their role in developing social, economic, and political structures, as well as in establishing and spreading ideas that helped transform the world forever. Students develop higher levels of critical thinking by considering why civilizations developed where and when they did, why they became dominant, and why they declined. Students analyze the interactions among the various cultures, emphasizing their enduring contributions and the link, despite time, between the contemporary and ancient worlds.
6.1 Students describe what is known through archaeological studies of the early physical and cultural development of humankind from the Paleolithic era to the agricultural revolution.
- Describe the hunter-gatherer societies, including the development of tools and the use of fire.
- Identify the locations of human communities that populated the major regions of the world and describe how humans adapted to a variety of environments.
- Discuss the climatic changes and human modifications of the physical environment that gave rise to the domestication of plants and animals and new sources of clothing and shelter.
The remaining standards concentrate on particular civilizations. Rock art from those areas may be touched upon:
- Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Kush
- Ancient Hebrews
- Ancient Greece
Students in grade seven study the social, cultural, and technological changes that occurred in Europe, Africa, and Asia in the years A. D. 500Ð 1789. After reviewing the ancient world and the ways in which archaeologists and historians uncover the past, students study the history and geography of great civilizations that were developing concurrently throughout the world during medieval and early modern times. They examine the growing economic interaction among civilizations as well as the exchange of ideas, beliefs, technologies, and commodities. They learn about the resulting growth of Enlightenment philosophy and the new examination of the concepts of reason and authority, the natural rights of human beings and the divine right of kings, experimentalism in science, and the dogma of belief. Finally, students assess the political forces let loose by the Enlightenment, particularly the rise of democratic ideas, and they learn about the continuing influence of these ideas in the world today.
7.7 Students compare and contrast the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Meso-American and Andean civilizations.
- Study the locations, landforms, and climates of Mexico, Central America, and South America and their effects on Mayan, Aztec, and Incan economies, trade, and development of urban societies.
- Study the roles of people in each society, including class structures, family life, war-fare, religious beliefs and practices, and slavery.
- Explain how and where each empire arose and how the Aztec and Incan empires were defeated by the Spanish.
- Describe the artistic and oral traditions and architecture in the three civilizations.
- Describe the Meso-American achievements in astronomy and mathematics, including the development of the calendar and the Meso-American knowledge of seasonal changes to the civilizations' agricultural systems.
Students in grade eight study the ideas, issues, and events from the framing of the Constitution up to World War I, with an emphasis on America's role in the war. After reviewing the development of America's democratic institutions founded on the Judeo-Christian heritage and English parliamentary traditions, particularly the shaping of the Constitution, students trace the development of American politics, society, culture, and economy and relate them to the emergence of major regional differences. They learn about the challenges facing the new nation, with an emphasis on the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War. They make connections between the rise of industrialization and contemporary social and economic conditions.
8.4 Students analyze the aspirations and ideals of the people of the new nation.
- Describe the country's physical landscapes, political divisions, and territorial expansion during the terms of the first four presidents.
- Discuss daily life, including traditions in art, music, and literature, of early national America (e.g., through writings by Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper).
8.5 Students analyze U.S. foreign policy in the early Republic.
3. Outline the major treaties with American Indian nations during the administrations of the first four presidents and the varying outcomes of those treaties.
8.6 Students analyze the divergent paths of the American people from 1800 to the mid-1800s and the challenges they faced, with emphasis on the Northeast.
- Discuss the influence of industrialization and technological developments on the region, including human modification of the landscape and how physical geography shaped human actions (e.g., growth of cities, deforestation, farming, mineral extraction).
- Outline the physical obstacles to and the economic and political factors involved in building a network of roads, canals, and railroads (e.g., Henry Clay's American System).
- Identify common themes in American art as well as transcendentalism and individualism (e.g., writings about and by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Herman Melville, Louisa May Alcott, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow).
8.8 Students analyze the divergent paths of the American people in the West from 1800 to the mid-1800s and the challenges they faced.
- Discuss the election of Andrew Jackson as president in 1828, the importance of Jacksonian democracy, and his actions as president (e.g., the spoils system, veto of the National Bank, policy of Indian removal, opposition to the Supreme Court).
- Describe the purpose, challenges, and economic incentives associated with westward expansion, including the concept of Manifest Destiny (e.g., the Lewis and Clark expedition, accounts of the removal of Indians, the Cherokees' "Trail of Tears," settlement of the Great Plains) and the territorial acquisitions that spanned numerous decades.
4.Examine the importance of the great rivers and the struggle over water rights.
8.12 Students analyze the transformation of the American economy and the changing social and political conditions in the United States in response to the Indus-trial Revolution.
- Trace patterns of agricultural and industrial development as they relate to climate, use of natural resources, markets, and trade and locate such development on a map.
- Identify the reasons for the development of federal Indian policy and the wars with American Indians and their relationship to agricultural development and industrialization.
- Explain how states and the federal government encouraged business expansion through tariffs, banking, land grants, and subsidies.
Please refer to the California History-Social Science Curriculum Frameworks website for high school standards. At this point, research and special projects may come into play.
Grade Nine: Elective Courses in History-Social Sciences
Grade Ten: World history, Culture, and Geography: The Modern World
Grade Eleven: United States History and Geography: Continuity and Change in the Twentieth Century
Grade Twelve: Principle of American Democracy (One Semester), Economics (One Semester)